1. Define electric potential difference?
2. Why is an ammeter connected in series in a circuit?
3. Why is a voltmeter connected in parallel in a circuit?
4. State the law that governs the strength of the current passing through a metallic conductor when a p.d is applied across its end. Illustrate this law graphically?
5. State the law which governs the amount of heat produced in a metallic conductor when current is passed through it for a given time. Express this law mathematically?
6. Define resistance. What are the factors on which it depends?
7. A copper wire of resitivity P is stretched to reduce its diameter to half its previous value. What is the new resistivity?
8. Define the S I unit of electric current and potential difference.
9. Derive expressions for equivalent resistance of resistors connected in
a. series combination
b. parallel combination
10. What is an electric fuse? Explain its function.
11. Explain, how the heating effect of electric current is made use in the functioning of an electric bulb?
12. State the relation between the commercial and SI unit of electric energy.
13. Write the advantages of connecting electrical appliances in parallel and disadvantages of connecting them in series in a household circuit.
14. Why is tungsten used almost exclusively for making the filaments of electric lamps?
15. A piece of wire is redrawn by pulling it until its length is doubled .Compare the new resistance with the original value.
16. An electric geyser has rating 2000 w, 220 v marked on it. What should be the minimum rating in whole number of a fuse wire that may be required for safe use with the geyser?
17. Three resistors each of resistance 10 ohm are connected, in turn, to obtain a. minimum resistance b. Maximum resistance. Compute
a) The effective resistance in each case
b) The ratio of minimum to maximum resistance so obtained.
18. Two resistors of resistance 2 ohms and 4 ohms are, in turn connected
a) In series
b) In parallel to a given battery for same interval.
Compute the ratio of the total quantity of heat produced in the combination in the two cases.
19. Two metallic wires A and B are connected in parallel. Wire A has length L and radius R wire B has a length 2L and radius 2r. Compute the ratio of the total resistance of parallel combination and resistance of wire A.
20. In a house three bulb of 100w each are lighted for 4 hours daily and six tube lights of 20w each are lighted for 5 hours daily and a refrigerator of 400w is worked for 10 hours daily for a month of 30 days. Calculate the electricity bill if the cost of one unit is Rs 4.00.
21. Three resistors of 4ohms, 6ohms and 12 ohms are connected in parallel. The combination of above resistors is connected in series to a resistance of 2 ohms and then to a battery of 6 volts. Draw a circuit diagram and calculate
a) Current in main circuit
b) Current flowing through each of the resistors in parallel
c) P.d and the power used by the 2 ohm resistor.
22. Two lamps, one rated 100 W at 220 V and the other 60W at 220 V, are connected in Parallel to a 220 volt supply. What current is drawn from the supply line?
LIGHT –REFLECTION AND REFRACTION
1. What are the differences between real image and virtual image?
2. The radius of curvature of a concave mirror is -46cm.What is its focal length?
3. How will you identify a plane mirror, a concave mirror and a convex mirror without touching their surface?
4. Which mirror has a wider field of view? Why?
5. What happens to a ray of light when it travels from a rarer medium to a denser medium?
6. What will be the signs of u, v and f for a convex lens as per sign convention?
7. State Snell’s law of refraction?
8. A lens always forms a diminished, erect and virtual image .Identify the nature of the lens?
9. Where should an object be placed so that a real and inverted image of the same size is formed using a convex lens?
10. How is the power of a lens related to its focal length?
11. What is the S I unit of power of a lens? Define.
12. Two lenses having power P1 and P2 are placed in contact. What is the net power of the combination?
13. Two lenses of powers 4D and -5D are kept in contact. Find the focal length of the combination. What is the nature of the combination?
14. What do you understand by the term refractive index?
15. The image of our face is viewed in and out of the curved surface of a spoon. What change in the image is observed? How will you explain this?
16. You should not look at the sun directly or even into a mirror reflecting the light from the sun. Justify.
17. You need an erect and enlarged image of on object on a mirror. Which mirror would you choose?
18. You need to get an image of the size as that of the object using a lens. What is the suitable lens to be used?
19. The image of an object at a distance of 20 cm from a mirror is formed at the object itself.
1) Identify the mirror 2) The nature of the image
3) size of the image 4) the focal length of the mirror
5) radius of curvature of the mirror
Draw the corresponding ray diagram.
20. Draw a ray diagram to show the formation of the image of an object placed at the centre of curvature of a concave mirror.
21. A convex mirror used on an automobile has radius of curvature of 2 m .If a car is located at 4 m from the mirror, find the position nature and size of the image
22. Why is convex mirror preferred to be used as a driver’s rear-view mirror?
23. For what position of an object, a virtual image is formed by a convex lens? Draw a ray diagram to show the formation of a virtual image by a convex lens. What are the other characteristics of the image?
24. Why is a concave lens is called diverging lens, whereas a convex lens a converging lens? Explain with the help of ray diagrams.
25. Why the apparent depth of a swimming pool is less than its real depth? On what factors does the difference between the two depend?
26. Two lenses having power of 2.0D and 0.25D are combined together. What is the
(a) net power of combination?
(b) focal length of the combination?
27. Give two uses of convex lens.
28. Give two uses of convex mirrors
29. Give two uses of concave mirror.
30. Give two uses of concave lens
31. Give two uses of plane mirror.
32. Show the path of a ray of light through a rectangular glass slab. Label incident ray, refracted ray, emergent ray, the angle of incidence and angle of emergence and lateral displacement. Why is angle of incidence equal to the angle of emergence?
33. Drawing ray diagrams for an object at infinity and by using the new sign convention show that the focal length of a concave mirror is negative and that of convex mirror is positive.
34. State three rules for drawing geometric images in concave lens.
28. A reflected ray of light makes an angle of 900 with the incident ray of light. What are the angle of incidence and the angle of reflection? Draw a diagram to illustrate these rays.
29. State the laws of refraction.
30. An object 4cm high is placed 15cm away from a concave lens of focal length 10cm. Draw a ray diagram and find the position, size and nature of the image formed.
35. An object is kept in front of a concave mirror of focal length 20cm.The image formed is three times the size of the object. Calculate the two possible distances of the object from the mirror.
36. An object 0.4m high is placed at a distance of 0.8m from a concave mirror of radius curvature 0.4m. Find the position, nature and size of the image formed?
37. Two thin converging lenses of focal length 15cm and 30cm are held in contact with each other. Calculate the power and focal length of combination.
38. Find the position of an object which when placed in front of a concave mirror of focal length 20cm, produces a virtual image, which is twice the size of the object.
39. Draw a ray diagram to show the formation of an object placed between the pole and focus of a concave mirror.
40. What is a lens? Distinguish between a convex and concave lens.
41. What do you understand by the power of a lens? Define magnification in case of spherical mirror and lens. Mention the new Cartesian sign convention applicable to in this case.
42. Draw a ray diagram to show the formation of the image of an object placed between optical centre and focus of a convex lens.
43. You are required to obtain an erect image of an object placed in front of a concave mirror of focal length 15cm.What should be the approximate distance of the object from the pole of the mirror? What is the nature of the image? Is the image larger of smaller in size than the object? Draw a ray diagram to show the formation of image.
44. An object of size 5cm is placed at a distance of 25cm from the pole of a concave mirror of radius of curvature 30cm.Calculate the distance and size of the image so formed. What will be the nature of the image?
45. An object of size 3cm is placed at a distance of 15cm from a convex lens of focal length 10cm.Calculate the distance and size of the image so formed. What will be the nature of the image?
46. Determine the speed of light in glass which has refractive index of 1.5, if the speed of light in vacuum is 3x108m/s.
47. A 1cm high image is obtained on a screen a t a distance of 20cm from a convex lens of focal length 10cm.What is the size the object?
48. The radius of curvature of a convex mirror is used on a moving automobile is 2.0 m. A truck is coming behind it at a constant distance of 3.5 m. Calculate (1) the position, and (2) the size of image relative to the size of the truck. What will bethe nature of the image?
49. (a) Draw a ray diagram to show passage of two rays of light through a rectangular slab of glass, when the angle of incidence is zero in one case and a littler less than 900 in the other case.
50. A transparent medium A floats on another transparent medium B .When a ray of light travels obliquely from A into B the reflected ray bends away from the normal. Which of the media A and B is optically denser and why?
51. Where will the image is formed by a convex mirror if the object is placed between infinity and the pole of the mirror?
52. A convex lens has a focal length of 50cm. Calculate its power.
53. IDENTIFY THE LENS/MIRROR
i) Focal length positive
ii) Focal length negative
iii) Power positive
iv) Power negative
v) Forms virtual image always magnified
vi) Forms only diminished virtual images
vii) Magnification always positive
viii) Magnification always less than one
ix) Can produce image of the same size
x) Forms real point sized image
xi) Forms virtual point sized image
xii) Used as shaving mirror
xiii) Used as rear view mirror
xiv) Have wide field of view
xv) Converges the incident rays
xvi) Diverges the incident rays
SOURCES OF ENERGY
1. What are the properties of a good fuel?
A good fuel is the one which can produce
i) large amount of heat
ii) less amount of smoke and
iii) easily available
2. List the properties of a good source of energy
A good source of energy is the one which
i. would do a large amount of work per unit volume or mass
ii. can be easily accessible
iii. can be easily stored and transported and
iv. is economical
3. If you could use any source of energy for heating your food, which one would you use and why?
Good fuel. For reasons refer Qn. No.1
4. What are fossil Fuels? Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of a fossil fuel?
The non – renewable sources of energy which was formed over millions of years ago underground in the form of coal and petroleum are called fossil fuels.
Fast growing global demand for energy for industrialization was met by fossil fuels. It can be used for the generation of electricity.
Burning fuels cause air pollution due to the oxides of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur that are released on burning fossil fuels. As these are acidic oxides, they lead to acid rain which affects our water and soil resources.
5. How has the traditional use of wind and water energy been modified for our convenience?
Wind energy which was used initially for lifting water are now used for generating electricity.
Water energy which was used for transportation before is now a good source to generate electricity.
6. Why are we looking for alternate source of energy?
Because fossil fuels are exhaustible.
7. What measures are to be taken to reduce air pollution caused due to fossil fuel?
Pollution can be reduced by increasing the efficiency of the combustion process and using clean fuel thereby reducing the escape of harmful gases.
8. Brief the basic construction of an electric generator.
The simplest device used for generating electricity has one moving part, a rotor-blade assembly. The moving water or wind or steam acts on the blades to spin it which impart energy to the rotor. This turns the shaft of the dynamo and converts mechanical energy into the electrical energy.
9. How is electricity generated in thermal Power plants?
Fossils fuels are burnt in large amount to heat up water and to produce steam. The steam turns the turbine to generate electricity.
Many thermal power plants are set up near coal or oil fields because transmitting electricity is more efficient than transporting coal and petroleum over the same distance.
10. Write a note on the functioning of hydro power plants
The kinetic energy of flowing water or the potential energy of water at a height is used to rotate the turbine and generate electricity. This energy thus generated is hydel energy.
High – rise dams are constructed on the river to collect water in large reservoirs. The water from high level in the dam is carried through pipes to turbine at the bottom of the dam. The potential energy of the high level water is converted into kinetic energy and used to rotate the turbine to produce electricity.
11. What are the advantages of hydel energy?
It is a renewable source of energy. Huge amount of energy can be harnessed through hydel power plants.
12. What are the limitations in using hydel energy in spite of its huge generation of electricity?
The limitations are
a) Difficulty in building big dams
b) Non – availability of places, hilly terrains to construct dams
c) Large area of land is sacrificed
d) Large eco-systems are destroyed
e) The rotten vegetation under water produces methane a green- house gas
f) Danger to the people living nearby
g) Difficulty in the rehabilitation of the affected.
13. What is meant by bio-mass?
The source of fuels obtained from plant and animal products like wood and cow dung is called bio – mass.
14. What are the disadvantages of using bio-mass as a fuel?
i. They do not produce much heat on burning
ii. Lot of smoke is given out when burned which causes air pollution.
15. How can you obtain charcoal from wood? In what way is it better than wood as a fuel?
When wood is burnt in limited supply of oxygen, water and volatile materials in it get removed, the residue left behind is called charcoal. It is smokeless and has higher heat generation efficiency (calorific value).
16. How is bio gas formed? Name the gases it contains.
The gas produced when cow dung, various plant materials like the residue after harvesting the crops, vegetable waste and sewage are decomposed in the absence of oxygen is called bio gas.
Biogas is the combination of gases like methane carbon dioxide, hydrogen and hydrogen sulphide.
17. Explain the construction and working of biogas plant.
Refer text Page 247
18. What are the advantages of using biogas?
– Excellent fuel which burns without smoke and leaving no residue
– High heating capacity
– Also used for lighting
– The slurry left behind is an excellent manure
– Safe and efficient method of waste disposal
19. How is wind energy harnessed?
Kinetic energy of wind is used to generate electricity using windmills. It consists of a large electric fan which is erected at some height. This fan is rotated by the wind which in turn rotates the turbine of anelectric generator.
20. What is a wind farm?
A large number of wind mills erected over large area is known as wind energy farm. The energy output of each wind mill is coupled together to get more electricity.
21. What are the advantages of using wind mills to harness energy? What are the difficulties in constructing wind farms?
It is an environment friendly and efficient renewable source. No recurring expenses while using it.
The limitations faced are
a. Windmills can be erected only at those places where wind blows at a minimum speed of 15 km/h
b. Back up facilities are to be made in case of no wind
c. Required a large area of land for establishment
d. Initial cost of establishment is high and a high level of maintenance is required
22. Name some devices used for harnessing solar energy.
Solar heater, solar cooker, solar cell etc.
23. What is the principle behind the working of a solar cooker?
The principles used are black body absorption and green house effect.
24. Explain how a solar cooker is constructed.
A box type solar cooker is made of a non conducting material with thick walls and its inner walls painted black. With the help of a plane mirror hinged on the top of the box, sunlight is reflected into the box. The box is covered with a glass sheet for the retention of heat inside due to green house effect. The range of heat inside is 100 degree Celsius to 140 degree Celsius, if kept for two to three hours. Keeping black containers in the box help us to cook food items that require slow heating. The limitations of using solar cooker are that it can be used only at certain times during a day.
Refer text for diagram – fig14.6 page 249
25. What kind of mirror – concave, convex or plain – would be best suited for use in solar cooker? Why?
Concave mirror is used in concentration type solar cookers to focus the heat radiation from sun to a particular point.
Plane mirror is used to reflect light into the box in the box type solar cooker.
26. Write a note on solar cells and its advantages and disadvantages.
Solar cells convert solar energy into electrical energy. It is made up of a material called silicon. Each cell can produce a voltage of 0.5 to 1 V and can produce about 0.7 W of electricity. Arrangement in which a large number of silicon cells are combined to get electricity in high level is called solar panel. They are mounted on specially designed inclined roof tops exposed to the solar radiation.
– Need little maintenance and no focusing devices
– Can be useful in remote and inaccessible places where the power transmission is difficult.
– Availability of special grade silicon is limited
– Manufacturing is expensive as silver is used for interconnecting cells
27. What are the applications of solar cell?
1. Used in artificial satellites and spacecrafts
2. Used in radio or wireless transmission system or TV relay stations
3. Used in traffic signals, calculators and toys
28. What is meant by tidal energy? How is it used to generate electricity?
Due to the gravitational pull of the moon on the earth, the level of water in the sea rises and falls. This phenomenon is called high tide and low tide. The difference in sea level gives tidal energy. Tidal energy is harnessed by constructing a dam across a narrow opening to the sea. A turbine fixed at the opening converts tidal energy into electricity.
29. What is wave energy?
The kinetic energy possessed by huge waves near the seashore can be used to operate the rotor of the generator and electricity is generated.
30. Give the source of ocean thermal energy (OTE). Describe briefly the working of a Ocean Thermal Energy Plant (OTEP)
The water at the surface of the sea is heated more by the sun than that at the deep sea. The difference in temperature is exploited as ocean thermal energy. The ocean thermal energy plants, OTEC, work if this temperature difference is about 20 degree Celsius. The warm surface water is used to boil a volatile liquid like ammonia. This vapor is used to the run the turbine of a generator to get electricity. The cold water from the depth is pumped up to condense the vapor again to liquid ammonia.
31. What are the limitations of the energy that can be obtained from the oceans?
– Initial cost is high.
– No continuous supply of energy
– Difficulty in constructing power plants near the ocean.
32. Identify the terms ‘hot spots’ and ‘hot springs’.
Due geological changes, molten rocks formed in the deeper hot regions of earth’s crust are pushed upward and trapped in certain regions called ‘hot spots’.
Hot water from hot spots finds outlets at the surface. Such outlets are known as ‘hot springs’.
33. Explain how geothermal energy can be harnessed. What is the limitation in harnessing it?
34. What are the two processes by which the nuclear energy is released?
Nuclear fission and nuclear fusion
35. How the energy released by nuclear fission is made use of in generating electricity?
The nucleus of a heavy atom such as uranium can be split apart into lighter nuclei. Tremendous energy is released during this process. Nuclear reaction is used to harness this energy. Self sustaining chain reaction of the fuel ( uranium) releases energy in a controlled rate. This energy produces steam by heating water which rotate turbine to generate electricity.
Advantage: The amount of energy released is tremendous. Energy is supplied for a longer period of time from the source.
· Improper fuel storage and disposal of nuclear waste results in environmental contamination
· Possibility of risk of accidental leakage of nuclear radiation
· High cost of installation
· Limited availability of fuel.
36. Hydrogen has been used as a rocket fuel. Would you consider it as a cleaner fuel than CNG (Compressed Natural Gas)?
Yes. Because when hydrogen is burnt the byproduct is only water. So it is cleaner fuel compared to CNG.
37. Can any source of energy be pollution free?
No. Although some sources are not producing any by – products causing pollution the construction or assembly of such devices produces some environmental damage. In this sense we can say no source of energy is pollution free.
Magnetic Effects of Current
1. What is a magnetic field? What are field lines around a magnet?
2. List the characteristic properties of magnetic field lines.
3. Sketch the pattern of magnetic field lines around a bar magnet.
4. Sketch the pattern of magnetic field lines around a current-carrying straight conductor and state the factors on which the strength of magnetic field depends.
5. State right hand thumb rule to find the direction of magnetic field around a current –carrying straight conductor. How will this magnetic field be affected on (a) Increasing the current through the conductor. (b) Changing the direction of flow of current in the conductor.
6. A student performs an experiment to study the magnetic effect of current around a current-carrying straight conductor. He reports that (a) The direction of deflection of thenorth pole of the compass needle kept at a given point near the conductor remains unaffected even when the terminals of the battery sending current in the wire are interchanged. (b) For a give battery, the degree of deflection of N pole decreases when the compass is kept at a farther away from the conductor. Which of the above observations of the student is incorrect and why?
7. Describe with a neat diagram an activity to show that a straight conductor carrying direct current produces a magnetic field around it. State the rule which determines the direction of magnetic field thus produced.
8. Draw the lines of force (indicating the direction) of magnetic field through and around (a) a single loop of wire carrying direct current. (b) a solenoid carrying direct current.
9. What are the factors on which the magnetic field due to a current-carrying circular coil depends? Also explain the pattern of field lines produced in and around a circular coil.
10. Draw the pattern of magnetic field lines of a current-carrying solenoid. What does the pattern of field lines inside a solenoid indicate? Write one application of magnetic field of current-carrying solenoid.
11. What is an electro-magnet? Draw a diagram showing an electro-magnet.
12. The magnetic field in a given region is uniform. Draw a diagram to represent it.
13. (a) Describe with diagram an experiment to show that a force is exerted on a current-carrying conductor when placed perpendicular in amagnetic field. (b) State the rule to find the direction of the force exerted on a current-carrying conductor in a magnetic field . (c) A current-carrying straight conductor is placed in the East-West direction. What will the direction experienced by the conductor due to earth’smagnetic field?
14. Why does a current-carrying conductor kept in a magnetic field experience force? On what factors does the direction of this force depend? Name and state the rule used for determination of direction of this force.
15. With a labeled diagram, describe the construction and working of an electric motor. What is the function of split ring commutator in a motor?
16. What is the use of a commutator? Name the component in an electric motor which acts as a commutator.
17. What is an armature? Mention the alternative methods adopted in commercial motors to enhance their power.
18. Explain the principle of an electric motor. Name some appliances in which the electric motor is used.
19. A positively charged particle projected towards West is deflected towards North by a magnetic field. What is the direction of the magnetic field?
20. Explain the meaning of the word “electro-magnetic” and “induction” in the term electro-magnetic induction. On what factors does the value of induced current produced in a circuit depend? Name and state the rule used for determination of direction of induced current. State one practical application of this phenomenon in everyday life.
21. Why is electro-magnetic induction so called? A coil connected to a sensitive galvanometer is held stationary. A bar magnet with its North Pole facing coil is moving towards the coil at a certain speed. The galvano meter needle shows deflection of 10 divisions to towards right of the centre of the scale. How will the reading on the galvanometer scale be affected if the south pole of the bar magnet facing the coil is moved away at the same speed?
22. Describe an activity to demonstrate the phenomenon of electro-magnetic induction.
23. State Fleming’s right hand rule. How is this rule useful?
24. Explain different ways to induce current in a coil.
25. (a) With the help of a neat labeled diagram, explain the construction and working of an electric generator. What is the function of bushes? (b) How does a D.C generator differ from that of A.C generator?
26. How does A.C differ from D.C? Which sources produce alternating current? What is the frequency of alternating current in India
27. Draw a schematic labeled diagram of a domestic electric circuit which includes a mains fuse, a power meter, a light point, a fan and a power plug.
28. What do you mean by (a) short circuit and (b) overloading? What are the safety precautions taken to avoid these problems in domestic electric circuits?
29. (a) An electrician put a fuse rating of 5A in that part of domestic electric circuit in which an electric heater of rating 1.5kW, 220V is operating. What is likely to happen in this and why? What change, if any, needs to be made? (b) You are given the following current time graphs from two different sources. (i) Name the type of current in two cases. (ii) Identify any one source for each type of these currents. (iii) What is the frequency of current in case II in India? (iv)Use above graphs to write two differences between the current in two cases.
30. An electrician assembling a household circuit uses a long thick copper wire with green insulation and a short wire made up of copper-tin alloy. What are the two wires called? Mention the importance of each wire in an electric circuit. How are the two wires connected in the circuit?